The Star Dunes of Sossusvlei

Sossusvlei National Park

After you arrive in Sesriem, the entrance to Sossusvlei National Park is easy to find. Don’t forget to stop by the park Namib-Naukluft National Park and get your permit from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Once you have got your permit in hand you are ready to enter the park. There is plenty of time to visit both the Sesriem Canyon and Sossusvlei Pan in the same day.

Sossusvlei National Park Map

If you don’t have a Sossusvlei map, don’t worry  the area is really easy to navigate, it is basically the same road in and out. Sesriem Canyon is located about 5 kilometers south of the park office and the Sossusvlei Pan is located about 65 kilometers west of the park office. In between lies an abundance of unique wildlife, camel thorn trees and beautiful red sand. The park entrance is gated and they do lock it up promptly at dusk. Be sure to exit the gate by then.

Sossusvlei National Park Is A Hidden Treasure

Sossusvlei National Park is one of the most popular attractions in Namibia and it is very easy to see why. The giant red sand dunes, wildlife and surrounding landscape are not of this world. Although this area is very popular with tourists we had the entire place to ourselves for the entire day. This suited us just fine, it was like finding a hidden treasure. It is always more precious if you don’t have to share with others.

Giant Red Sand Dunes at Sossusvlei

The towering red sand dunes of the Sossusvlei National Park are on average about 375 meters above the Tsauchab River Valley below. They about 200 meters above the surrounding sand filled valleys. The dunes get their red color from the iron oxide that thinly coats the outside of each sand grain. The red color actually comes from the rusting of the iron.

Sossusvlei National Park

The giant red sand dunes at Sossusvlei National Park are most definitely the main attraction in this area and possibly in all of Namibia.

Sossusvlei Sand Dunes

The Sossusvlei sand dunes located here are called “star dunes”. They are characterized by immobility due to the wind blowing in equal strength from several different directions. Their giant size is built up over time due to the wind blowing the sand in such manner that it accumulates near the crest of the dune, thus the dunes continue to grow. In a thousand years the giant sand dunes will most likely still be here in the same location and also will have grown larger if the environment remains the same.

Two Deserts In One at Sossusvlei National Park

The present day Namib desert actually sits above the remains of an older desert that dates back 20 million years. That desert is now fossilized and forms the Tsondab Sandstone. This sandstone lies beneath most areas of the present day Namib desert.

This very sandstone also facilitates the long distance underground flows of the Tsauchab River. The water that seeps through the permeable riverbed at Sossusvlei National park is still able to reach the Atlantic ocean. It uses this sub surface passage way, by flowing over the Tsondab Sandstone Formation.

Sossusvlei National Park

Climbing to the top of the largest sand dune neighboring Sossusvlei National Park. Wow, what a view!

Sossusvlei National Park

The view from the top of the giant red dune neighboring Sossusvlei National Park. The weather that evening was serene. The next day when we returned, the wind had begun blowing much harder and creating a sand storm environment.

Clay Pan at Sossusvlei National Park

The Sossusvlei Pan is actually a clay pan that is formed at the end of the sporadically flowing Tsauchab River. When it reaches the farthest point that it is possible to flow, it sinks into the Namib desert. The pan itself is sometimes incorrectly designated as a salt pan. If you have ever visited a salt pan such as the pan at Etosha you will notice the distinct differences. Sossusvlei has large mud cracks that form as the water seeps away into the sand and leaves the clay minerals behind.

Sossusvlei National Park

Deep mud cracks form in the pan when the water seeps away into the desert at Sossusvlei National Park.

Fossilized Footprints at Sossusvlei National Park

Fossilized dinosaur footprints have been formed in similar clay pan environments long ago. The mud is imprinted when it is moist and then if it is left undisturbed long enough it will fossilize. In this way it can be preserved for future generations to observe. Fossilized footprints of a modern man or antelope would also form under similar conditions. Then millions of years later they could be discovered as evidence of prehistoric life!

At Sossusvlei A River Flows Under the Desert

The Tsauchab River used to regularly flow all the way to the Atlantic Ocean during wetter historical time periods. As I mentioned above, it is fascinating that the fresh water from the Tsauchab River still does make it all the way to the Atlantic. It flows out of the desert near Meob Bay in a fresh water underground river.

Sossusvlei National Park

The birds eye view of Sossusvlei from the top of one of the neighboring sand dunes. The Sossusvlei is in itself an individual clay pan. It is also used to refer to the surrounding general area where there are still other remaining pans such as the Deadvlei. Many others must have been buried far beneath the giant dunes a long time ago at Sossusvlei National Park.

Sossusvlei National Park’s Receding Underground River

The flow levels of these underground rivers are unfortunately receding as the climate becomes more arid. Also, the human population continues to draw down the water table in the surrounding areas. This is evidenced by the dead camel thorn trees that are visible from the road while traveling into the Sossusvlei Pan. During wetter periods the underground water table was higher and kept the trees alive. However, with the receding water table many of the the trees have now died. There are only skeletons which add a very brilliant desert ambience to this area.

Photo dead camelthorn tree Sossusvlei National Park

Camel thorn trees as seen while traveling into Sossusvlei National park. Many of the trees are now only skeletons due to the sinking and shifting pathways of the underground water levels. In previous years these trees were kept alive by the flows of the Tsauchab River.

Unique Wildlife of Sossusvlei Sand Dunes

The wildlife in the area must of course be well adapted to surviving on very little water. The coastal fog from the Atlantic does make it into the area. This provides some moisture that permits the survival of vegetation and animals. This desert life would otherwise perish without it. Animals that we encountered included ostrich, oryx (also known as the gemsbok), bat eared fox and also the springbok.

The Oryx at Sossusvlei National Park

The Oryx are located in Southern Africa, East Africa and also in Arabia. They can survive for long periods of time without water and live in herds of up to 600 animals. However, we did not see any large oryx herds of this great size near the Sossusvlei sand dunes. The oryx we saw were traveling alone.

Additionally, both the male and female oryx have the long horns. They can be ferocious fighters and have been known to kill lions!

Oryx at Sossusvlei National park

An oryx, also known as a gemsbok, posing near some camel thorn trees as seen while traveling to Sossusvlei National Park.

Gemsbok (Oryx) at Sossusvlei National Park

Another large oryx spotted a few kilometers inside the park entrance at dusk. Although they are known to form herds of up to 600, we did not see them in groups this large while visiting Sossusvlei National Park.

The Bat Eared Fox at Sossusvlei National Park

The bat eared fox is primarily an insectivore. It’s habitat in Southern Africa ranges from Southern Angola and Zambia, through Namibia and into South Africa. It’s main food source is the harvester termite but it will also eat beetles and mice if it can catch them. It uses its large ears and a fine sense of hearing to find its prey. It also uses its large ears to regulate its body temperature by using thermoregulation.

Bat Eared Fox at Sossusvlei National park

A small group of bat eared fox spotted at dusk inside Sossusvlei National Park.

The Winds of Sossusvlei National Park

The winds of Sossusvlei sand dunes have two effects. They can make travel and survival in the Namib Desert nearly impossible and also create infinite beauty in a harsh desert environment. They do this by carving out the desert landscape. It is the wind that moves the sand and creates the giant Sossusvlei sand dunes that tower over this landscape. The wind also creates the finite details that add the finishing touches.

Dead Camelthorn Trees Durging Windstorm at Sossusvlei National Park

On our 2nd day in Sossusvlei National Park, the wind had picked up considerably and a lot of sand was blowing around. We were unable to return to Sossusvlei Pan due to the windstorm that had picked up.

Sossusvlei National Park

The strong desert winds also have a beautifying effect. These miniature sand ridges are carved in the landscape by the winds of Sossusvlei National Park.

Sossusvlei National Park

When the sun is low on the horizon it paints the giant sand dunes with brilliant ambient desert colors. The sand dunes at Sossusvlei National Park are like a painters canvass.

 

Article Sources:

Namibia – Fascination of Geology
A Travel Handbook
Nicole Grunert

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oryx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat-eared_fox