Sossusvlei National Park
After you arrive in Sesriem, the entrance to Sossusvlei National Park is easy to find. Don’t forget to stop by the park Namib-Naukluft National Park and get your permit from the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Once you have got your permit in hand you are ready to enter the park. There is plenty of time to visit both the Sesriem Canyon and Sossusvlei Pan in the same day.
Sossusvlei National Park Is A Hidden Treasure
Sossusvlei National Park is one of the most popular attractions in Namibia and it is very easy to see why. The giant red sand dunes, wildlife and surrounding landscape are not of this world.
Although this area is very popular with tourists we had the entire place to ourselves for the entire day. This suited us just fine, it was like finding a hidden treasure. It is always more precious if you don’t have to share with others.
Giant Red Sand Dunes at Sossusvlei
The towering red sand dunes of the Sossusvlei National Park are on average about 375 meters above the Tsauchab River Valley below. They about 200 meters above the surrounding sand filled valleys. The dunes get their red color from the iron oxide that thinly coats the outside of each sand grain. The red color actually comes from the rusting of the iron.
Sossusvlei Sand Dunes
The Sossusvlei sand dunes located here are called “star dunes”. They are characterized by immobility due to the wind blowing in equal strength from several different directions. Their giant size is built up over time due to the wind blowing the sand in such manner that it accumulates near the crest of the dune, thus the dunes continue to grow.
In a thousand years the giant sand dunes will most likely still be here in the same location and also will have grown larger if the environment remains the same.
Two Deserts In One at Sossusvlei National Park
The present day Namib desert actually sits above the remains of an older desert that dates back 20 million years. That desert is now fossilized and forms the Tsondab Sandstone. This sandstone lies beneath most areas of the present day Namib desert.
The Tsondab Sandstone also facilitates the long distance underground flows of the Tsauchab River. The water that seeps through the permeable riverbed at Sossusvlei National Park is still able to reach the Atlantic ocean. It uses this sub surface passage way, flowing over the sandstone formation.
Clay Pan at Sossusvlei National Park
The Sossusvlei Pan is actually a clay pan that is formed at the end of the sporadically flowing Tsauchab River. When it reaches the farthest point that it is possible to flow, it sinks into the Namib desert.
The pan itself is sometimes incorrectly designated as a salt pan. If you have ever visited a salt pan such as the pan at Etosha you will notice the distinct differences. Sossusvlei has large mud cracks that form as the water seeps away into the sand and leaves the clay minerals behind.
Fossilized Footprints at Sossusvlei National Park
Fossilized dinosaur footprints have been formed in similar clay pan environments long ago. The mud is imprinted when it is moist and then if it is left undisturbed long enough it will fossilize. In this way it can be preserved for future generations to observe.
Fossilized footprints of a modern man or antelope would also form under similar conditions. Then millions of years later they could be discovered as evidence of prehistoric life!
At Sossusvlei A River Flows Under the Desert
The Tsauchab River used to regularly flow all the way to the Atlantic Ocean during wetter historical time periods. As I mentioned above, it is fascinating that the fresh water from the Tsauchab River still does make it all the way to the Atlantic. It flows out of the desert near Meob Bay in a fresh water underground river.
Sossusvlei National Park’s Receding Underground River
The flow levels of these underground rivers are unfortunately receding as the climate becomes more arid. Also, the human population continues to draw down the water table in the surrounding areas. This is evidenced by the dead camel thorn trees that are visible from the road while traveling into the Sossusvlei Pan.
During wetter periods the underground water table was higher and kept the trees alive. However, with the receding water table many of the the trees have now died. There are only skeletons which add a very brilliant desert ambience to this area.
Unique Wildlife of Sossusvlei Sand Dunes
The wildlife in the area must of course be well adapted to surviving on very little water. The coastal fog from the Atlantic does make it into the area. This provides some moisture that permits the survival of vegetation and animals. This desert life would otherwise perish without it. Animals that we encountered included ostrich, oryx (also known as the gemsbok), bat eared fox and also the springbok.
The Oryx at Sossusvlei National Park
The Oryx are located in Southern Africa, East Africa and also in Arabia. They can survive for long periods of time without water and live in herds of up to 600 animals. However, we did not see any large oryx herds of this great size near the Sossusvlei sand dunes. The oryx we saw were traveling alone.
Additionally, both the male and female oryx have the long horns. They can be ferocious fighters and have been known to kill lions!
The Bat Eared Fox at Sossusvlei National Park
The bat eared fox is primarily an insectivore. It’s habitat in Southern Africa ranges from Southern Angola and Zambia, through Namibia and into South Africa. It’s main food source is the harvester termite but it will also eat beetles and mice if it can catch them.
This unique animal uses it’s large ears and a fine sense of hearing to find its prey. Additionally, the large ears of the bat eared fox can be used for thermoregulation, a method of regulating body temperature.
The Winds of Sossusvlei National Park
The winds of Sossusvlei sand dunes have two effects. They can make travel and survival in the Namib Desert nearly impossible and also create infinite beauty in a harsh desert environment. They do this by carving out the desert landscape.
It is the wind that moves the sand and creates the giant Sossusvlei sand dunes that tower over this landscape. The wind also creates the finite details that add the finishing touches.
Namibia – Fascination of Geology
A Travel Handbook